Types Research

Research

CCSI produces qualitative and quantitative research crucial for advancing the body of knowledge on investment for sustainable development. This research provides a foundation for CCSI’s other activities and for advancing its overarching mission.

Mining and Water Risk: Diagnosis, Benchmarking, and Quantitative Analysis of Financial Impacts

As part of 3-year grant from Norges Bank Investment Management (NBIM), CCSI is working with the Columbia Water Center to develop and benchmark a modeling platform for quantitatively assessing the environmental risks associated with gold and copper mining projects and their resulting financial implications.

Fossil Fuel Companies and Climate Change

CCSI has been exploring what strategies fossil fuel companies have embraced in order to address climate change concerns and what responsible investors could request from fossil fuel companies in order to move towards a decarbonized economy.

A Regulatory, Operational and Commercial Framework for the Utilization of Associated Gas

CCSI is working to develop a regulatory and operational framework that would unlock the value of the APG that is currently wasted, in order to improve energy efficiency, expand access to energy, and contribute to climate change mitigation, thus promoting sustainable development.

Topical Contractual Issues

Contract Comparison Research: Using the ResourceContracts.org contract comparison tool, CCSI is researching local content and water provisions respectively in oil, gas, and mining contracts from select countries, supplementing and situating the analysis in the context of the projects to which the contracts apply to understand the impact of such provisions on water availability for communities surrounding… read more

Participation in Investor-State Disputes

With the support of the Environmental Law Clinic at Columbia Law School and the Law School Clinic at Sciences Po, CCSI submitted an application to file a written submission as an “other person” in Bear Creek Mining Corporation v. Republic of Peru. CCSI’s submission focused on a range of issues, including: The implications of international… read more

Aligning Investment Treaties with Sustainable Development

Policy makers and other stakeholders are currently asking fundamental questions about whether and to what extent international investment agreements (IIAs) are consistent with and are helping to advance sustainable development objectives at home and abroad. A CCSI study commissioned by the Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation provides a framework to help answer those questions about… read more

Mining and the Sustainable Development Goals

In September 2015, the UN member states agreed on a set of 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), which represent the global agenda for equitable, socially inclusive, and environmentally sustainable economic development until 2030. Mining companies have the potential to become leading partners in achieving the SDGs. Through their direct operations, mining companies can generate profits, employment, and economic growth in… read more

Conceptualizing Economic Linkages to the Resource Sector

GIZ has been working with CCSI to develop research and training materials around economic linkages to the resource sector.

Addressing Legal Support Gaps Around Land-Based Investment

CCSI is working to identify and advance concrete steps that can help address legal support gaps in the context of large-scale land-based investment. Such investment presents significant challenges for governments, communities, investors, and other stakeholders. While these challenges are often distinct, one commonality is the need for better and more accessible legal support. For example,… read more

Enabling Resource Contract Transparency

Contract transparency in natural resources is an emerging norm that many governments, companies and international institutions have endorsed, particularly within the extractive industries. However, more must be done to make it a standardized and meaningful norm that leads to better accountability within the extractive industries as well as around investments in land, agriculture, and forestry…. read more

Transparency in Land-Based Investment

Large-scale investments in agriculture and forestry hold diverse and far-reaching implications. Despite their significance, these investments are often negotiated and approved behind closed doors, and governed by contracts that are difficult to access and understand. This status quo is particularly concerning in countries where land contracts play a pivotal role in allocating risks and determining… read more

Comparing Mineral Regimes: Licensing vs. Contracts

CCSI examined the advantages and disadvantages of different minerals regimes (licensing regimes vs. contractual arrangements) in 18 countries around the world. For the 13 countries that used mining contracts, CCSI further examined the contract negotiation and implementation processes of 30 mining contracts as well as the relationship between those countries’ mining contracts and their legal regimes. CCSI also identified potential opportunities for external experts to support resource rich, low income countries in contract negotiations.

The Mine of the Future

CCSI, IISD and Engineers Without Borders researched the technological innovations that are being developed, assessing when these technologies could be rolled out, and quantifying their impact on local employment and procurement and how local content policies should adapt.

Leveraging Mining-Related Infrastructure Investments for Development

With the support of the World Bank and the Australian Government, CCSI has been exploring regulatory, operational and commercial models to leverage mining-related infrastructure for broader development needs.

Land Deal Dilemmas: Grievances, Human Rights, and Investor Protections

This project examines the legal frameworks governing what governments can do to address and remedy land-related grievances after investment concessions have been awarded.

Research Series on New Trends in and Development Impacts of International Investment Law

An ongoing stream of CCSI’s work is to follow developments with claims made and decisions issued in treaty-based investor-state arbitrations, and produce papers documenting these developments and highlighting their implications for environmental, social and economic policy.

Managing the Public Trust: How to Make Natural Resource Funds Work for Citizens

The Natural Resource Governance Institute (NRGI) and the Columbia Center on Sustainable Investment (CCSI) have conducted a world-wide survey of NRFs looking at their management, investments, transparency, and accountability to the public, as well as the fiscal rules that govern them. This project seeks to foster cross-country experience-sharing on fund governance.

Employment from Mining and Investments in Land for Agriculture

The employment potential of investments in extractive industry projects and land acquisitions for agriculture is often touted both by governments and by companies in support of investor-friendly policies and large-scale investments in natural resources. CCSI is examining how job numbers are calculated, which factors influence job creation, and the quality and sustainability of these jobs, as well as whether job creation generated from these investments is net positive.

Relationship between Investment Treaty Protections and Domestic Law Standards

With over 3000 international investment treaties in existence and governments continuing to negotiate and ratify additional bilateral and multilateral investment treaties, it is important to have a clear understanding of the implications of these investment treaties on investor protections and state liability, and the resulting balance of public and private interests that they strike. To… read more

Community Development Requirements: Domestic Laws, Best Practices, and Community Development Agreements Database

The project is collecting and reviewing community development requirements for mining companies and aims to create a matrix that encompasses these requirements as well as a database of agreements.

Infrastructure Investments Tied to Large-Scale Agriculture Projects

Infrastructure development is often cited as one of the primary benefits of foreign direct investment in large-scale agricultural projects. Yet it is hard to find specific information on the most common types of infrastructure linkages, or how beneficial such linkages are for communities and host governments. CCSI is examining various strategies used to leverage large-scale… read more

Bridging the Gaps between Investment Law and Environmental Policy

CCSI is reviewing international investment agreements and the case law interpreting them, and analyzing what the treaties mean for domestic environmental policy.

Developing a Collaborative Approach to Human Rights Impact Assessments

CCSI, the Sciences Po Law School Clinic, and the Danish Institute for Human Rights have developed a collaborative approach to human rights impact assessments (HRIAs) of private sector investment projects. HRIAs have become increasingly prominent in recent years, particularly as companies focus on conducting human rights due diligence and communities seek to better understand the… read more

Essential Security Clauses in International Investment Agreements

This project looks at the extent to which international investment agreements have come to incorporate clauses that provide the parties with exceptions from the application of certain disciplines.

Fiscal Regimes for Natural Resources

CCSI is researching several aspects of designing and implementing a fiscal regime in an attempt to find legal and fiscal elements that can help avoid unanticipated consequences or disputes between the investor and the government over the course of the investment.

China’s emergence as an important outward investor and implications for international investment law

China has become one of the three most important outward foreign direct investors, complementing its role as one of the most important host countries world wide and the most important one among developing countries. Moreover, the country has concluded the second highest number of of bilateral investment treaties, in addition to free trade agreements with… read more

Business Case for Transparency

CCSI strongly supports the transparency of contracts and tax flows and has published various research and papers making the business case for transparency, including two submissions to the SEC in 2011 and 2015.

China-US Bilateral Investment Treaty

This project looks at the obstacles to an agreement between China and the US, and the compromises that could possibly be envisioned.

Review Mechanisms in Natural Resource Contracts

CCSI has published a brief which examines the use of built-in review periods in extractive industry contracts as a mechanism for managing investor–host-country relations over the duration of a project. CCSI completed a survey of periodic review mechanisms contained in extractive industry contracts, to analyze how they have been used to date and understand the purposes for which they may usefully be applied.

Outward FDI and Competitive Neutrality

The study of outward FDI and competitive neutrality seeks to analyze what measures home countries have undertaken to support their outward investing enterprises and what the salient features are of these measures.

Downstream Beneficiation of Extractive Resources

This research looks at the economic prerequisites that attract first degree downstream beneficiation industries, such as steel mills, and the extent to which these industries have contributed to further domestic linkages in the past, and assesses whether it makes sense to provide large incentives for these investments.

Review of Legal Frameworks Governing Public-Private Partnerships

CCSI is working to deepen and broaden understanding regarding the appropriate legal frameworks that can better ensure that public-private partnerships result in high quality, accountable, and sustainable infrastructure and related services.

Fostering Knowledge and Technology Spillovers of Extractive Industry Investments

This research project assesses the channels through which knowledge and technology can be transferred and, based on successful country case studies, provides recommendations on how governments can enhance technological spillovers in oil, gas, and mining.

Leveraging Investment for Sustainable Development: the Role of Performance Requirements for Technology Transfer

This project furthers research (1) on the types of performance requirements countries may want to use (or avoid using) in order to fully reap the benefits from investments by MNEs; and (2) the role of international investment agreements in promoting or restricting use of such performance requirements.

Home-country Measures Supporting International Climate Change Mitigation and Adaptation

This research project focuses on identifying concrete actions home states can take to help catalyze and channel FDI to enhance technology transfer for climate change mitigation and adaptation strategies.

Emerging-Market MNEs and Sustainable Development

The Emerging Market Global Players Project leads and coordinates research among a worldwide network of academics and institutions that produce new studies on the salient features of MNEs from emerging markets and their impact on sustainable development.

Intra-African Investment Flows

In partnership with Africa Investor, CCSI evaluated trends in intra-African investment flows over the last 10 years. A high-level summary of the research was published in the November 2012 edition of Africa Investor magazine.

Review of Competitive Bidding Frameworks for Natural Resource Rights

This study surveyed the trend toward countries integrating competitive bidding provisions for mineral rights allocation into their national legislation and regulations, and sought to analyze these issues.

Resource for Infrastructure Deals

CCSI, in collaboration with the Carter Center, is developing two economic models for the Sicomines mine in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) to compare the financial flows under the resource for infrastructure deal with a ‘traditional’ contract under the mining code of the DRC.

Infrastructure Development and Large-Scale Natural Resource Investments

Infrastructure linked to large-scale natural resource investments is often cited as a primary benefit of such investments, including for both extractive industry and land-based agriculture projects. The most common methods of linking infrastructure development to investments differ, however, based on the underlying sector. CCSI has undertaken a significant amount of research on leveraging extractive industry… read more