Cross-Border Pipelines

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The International Energy Agency estimates that investment in energy supply infrastructure between 2012 and 2030 will be approximately $26.3 trillion; a large part of it will be in cross-border pipelines. This project examined the bargaining power of cross-border pipeline transit countries and the range of factors that influence it, including their position in the pipeline, their commercial interest in the project as well as their foreign policy strategy. This project also analyzed the tension between sovereignty and freedom of passage under public international law.