Areas Extractive Industries

Extractive Industries


Integrating the SDGs in Company Sustainability Strategies

The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) represent the world’s comprehensive post-2015 agenda for equitable, socially inclusive, and environmentally sustainable economic development. Meeting the SDGs by 2030 will require unprecedented cooperation and collaboration among governments, non-governmental organizations, development partners, the private sector and communities. Unlike the MDGs, the SDG framework calls upon the private sector to incorporate… read more

Developing a Collaborative Approach to Human Rights Impact Assessments

CCSI, in partnership with the Sciences Po Law School Clinic and the Danish Institute for Human Rights, has developed a collaborative approach to human rights impact assessments (HRIAs) of private sector investment projects. Although HRIAs have become increasingly prominent in recent years, one specific challenge is the frequent lack of trust between communities and companies, which often extends to distrust of HRIAs that “the other side” has initiated. A collaborative approach to HRIAs provides an avenue to jointly undertake an HRIA that is considered credible by all sides and that helps to address the power imbalances that often exist between companies and communities around private sector projects.

Assessing Water-Related Risks in the Mining Sector

As part of a 3-year grant from Norges Bank Investment Management (NBIM), CCSI is working with the Columbia Water Center to develop and benchmark a modeling platform for quantitatively assessing the environmental risks associated with gold and copper mining projects and their resulting financial implications.

DRC: Human Rights Impact Assessments For Mining Projects

CCSI supported local organizations in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) to carry out human rights impact assessments, as well as developing two economic models for the Sicomines mine in the DRC to compare the financial flows under the resource for infrastructure deal with a ‘traditional’ contract under the mining code of the DRC.

Fossil Fuel Companies and Climate Change

CCSI has been exploring what strategies fossil fuel companies have embraced in order to address climate change concerns and what responsible investors could request from fossil fuel companies in order to move towards a decarbonized economy.

A Regulatory, Operational and Commercial Framework for the Utilization of Associated Gas

CCSI is working to develop a regulatory and operational framework that would unlock the value of the APG that is currently wasted, in order to improve energy efficiency, expand access to energy, and contribute to climate change mitigation, thus promoting sustainable development.

Executive Sessions on Politics and Extractive Industries

Over the last 15 years, there has been a surge in the number and diversity of organizations and initiatives working to strengthen the governance of extractive industries (oil, gas and mining), and to mobilize resources, tools and frameworks to translate resource wealth into tangible development outcomes.  As a result of this growing attention to the field, there… read more

Negotiation Support to Resource Rich, Low-, and Middle-Income Countries

CCSI created and manages the Negotiation Support Portal, to improve the accessibility of tools, resources and technical assistance to support host governments’ planning, preparing for, negotiating, monitoring, and implementing large-scale resource and infrastructure investments, and to facilitate coordination among support providers and host governments. In addition, CCSI has launched a series of meetings of negotiation support providers to create a forum to discuss common challenges and opportunities and to facilitate greater coordination among support providers.

Supporting Governments in Relation to Fiscal Frameworks

CCSI is working with a number of governments and civil society organizations to provide advice on various issues relating to the regulatory regime for their extractive industries sector. Cameroon: Fiscal analysis of the proposed Sundance iron ore project, and fiscal tool to estimate the government revenues from the proposed Herakles Farms palm oil plantation project… read more

Renewable Power of the Mines

Mine sites that are remote often rely on off-grid ways to generate power, which cost a lot more. Renewable energy could be a cost-reducing solution and CCSI is researching how to leverage demand from mines to deploy renewables in developing countries.

Critical Minerals For Green Technologies

CCSI is researching how the development of green technology could impact the demand for “critical” minerals.

“Stranding” Fossil Fuel Assets Equitably

CCSI is exploring how equity can be taken into account when thinking through the issue of stranding assets.

DRC: Economic Model for Resource For Infrastructure Deal

In partnership with the Carter Center, CCSI developed two economic models for the Sicomines mine in the DRC to compare the financial flows under the resource for infrastructure deal with a ‘traditional’ contract under the mining code of the DRC. The collaboration agreement between the Congolese Government and a consortium of Chinese companies is one… read more

Supporting Governments in Relation to Legal Frameworks of the Extractive Industries Sector

CCSI is working with a number of governments and civil society organizations to provide advice on various issues relating to the regulatory regime for their extractive industries sector.

Liberia: Partnership with the National Investment Commission

CCSI assisted the National Investment Committee of the Government of Liberia in its review of the investment framework and investment proposals related to extractive industries and infrastructure.

Australia: Supporting the evaluation of the EITI pilot

The University of Queensland (UQ) sub-contracted with CCSI to support the evaluation of the Australian EITI pilot that UQ is undertaking. CCSI brought its international experience with EITI implementation to the evaluation team.

Topical Contractual Issues

Contract Comparison Research: Using the ResourceContracts.org contract comparison tool, CCSI is researching local content and water provisions respectively in oil, gas, and mining contracts from select countries, supplementing and situating the analysis in the context of the projects to which the contracts apply to understand the impact of such provisions on water availability for communities surrounding… read more

Community Development Requirements: Domestic Laws, Best Practices, and Community Development Agreements Database

CCSI has a growing portfolio of activities regarding community development requirements and community development agreements (CDAs) that includes: (i) mapping domestic legal requirements for community development in the context of mining projects; (ii) policy and research on best practices around CDAs and benefit sharing for extractive, agricultural, and forestry projects; and (iii) regularly maintained collection of publicly available community agreements relating to extractive, agricultural, and forestry projects.

Employment from Mining and Investments in Land for Agriculture

The employment potential of investments in extractive industry projects and land acquisitions for agriculture is often touted both by governments and by companies in support of investor-friendly policies and large-scale investments in natural resources. CCSI is examining how job numbers are calculated, which factors influence job creation, and the quality and sustainability of these jobs, as well as whether job creation generated from these investments is net positive.

Comparing Lessons Learned for Extractive Industry Investments and Large Land-Based Agricultural Investments

CCSI has brought together stakeholders to explore good governance initiatives for extractive industry investments and large land-based agricultural investments—in particular, whether, and if so, why, certain good governance efforts may be more advanced in one industry than in the other, and what could be done to further advance governance initiatives in both industries.

Support to the UN SDSN on the Post-2015 Sustainable Development Agenda

CCSI provides support to the UN Sustainable Development Solutions Network (UN SDSN) Thematic Group 10 on Good Governance of Extractive and Land Resources. This has included technical support on reports and documents during the development of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), as well as in the development of potential indicators to measure progress toward the SDGs. In addition, the Center and the Thematic Network have worked together on a number of projects to identify research gaps and generate innovative solutions.

Mining and the Sustainable Development Goals

In September 2015, the UN member states agreed on a set of 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), which represent the global agenda for equitable, socially inclusive, and environmentally sustainable economic development until 2030. Mining companies have the potential to become leading partners in achieving the SDGs. Through their direct operations, mining companies can generate profits, employment, and economic growth in… read more

Mozambique: Development of a Five-Pillar Plan for Resource-Based Development

This 2011 project examined how the vast resource deposits in the Tete province, combined with other major investments along the Nacala and Beira corridors, can be the basis for sustainable, equitable and inclusive growth in the Lower Zambezi Basin.

Conceptualizing Economic Linkages to the Resource Sector

GIZ has been working with CCSI to develop research and training materials around economic linkages to the resource sector.

Tanzania Diagnostic Trade Integration Study

CCSI has been contracted to perform the extractive industries section of the World Bank Diagnostic Trade Integration Study (DTIS) for Tanzania. The study aims to identify the internal and external trade constraints that hinder the development of the priority sectors and provide policy recommendations on how these obstacles can be overcome. The Government of Tanzania… read more

Enabling Resource Contract Transparency

Contract transparency in natural resources is an emerging norm that many governments, companies and international institutions have endorsed, particularly within the extractive industries. However, more must be done to make it a standardized and meaningful norm that leads to better accountability within the extractive industries as well as around investments in land, agriculture, and forestry…. read more

Open Fiscal Models

Alongside growing revenue and contract transparency, increasing model transparency is needed. Only with financial model transparency can relevant actors better assess whether contracts are balanced in terms of fiscal returns and understand when revenues start flowing to the government. CCSI strongly supports financial model transparency and has developed two open fiscal models. We are currently… read more

Natural Resources for Sustainable Development: The Fundamentals of Oil, Gas and Mining Governance (facilitated MOOC)

Twice a year, CCSI, Natural Resource Governance Institute (NRGI), the World Bank and the United Nations Sustainable Development Solutions Network (SDSN) offer a massive open online course (MOOC) on Natural Resources for Sustainable Development: The Fundamentals of Oil, Gas and Mining Governance. This MOOC, (delivered in English), is designed for the participation of large numbers of geographically dispersed… read more

Mining Contracts: How to Read and Understand Them

In December 2013, a diverse group of 14 experts from Africa, Asia, North and South America, and Europe worked together for five days to produce a user-friendly guide in English and in French on “Mining Contracts: How to Read and Understand Them,” to help policy makers, civil society, citizens, and the media understand the often… read more

ResourceContracts.org: A Database of Publicly Available Oil, Gas and Mining Contracts

ResourceContracts.org CCSI, together with the World Bank and Natural Resource Governance Institute, has developed ResourceContracts.org, an online, searchable and user-friendly database of publicly available oil, gas and mining contracts from around the world. Users can search contracts by country, by natural resource or by type of contract; view summaries of key social, environmental, fiscal, and operational provisions; and download… read more

Comparing Mineral Regimes: Licensing vs. Contracts

CCSI examined the advantages and disadvantages of different minerals regimes (licensing regimes vs. contractual arrangements) in 18 countries around the world. For the 13 countries that used mining contracts, CCSI further examined the contract negotiation and implementation processes of 30 mining contracts as well as the relationship between those countries’ mining contracts and their legal regimes. CCSI also identified potential opportunities for external experts to support resource rich, low income countries in contract negotiations.

The Mine of the Future

CCSI, IISD and Engineers Without Borders researched the technological innovations that are being developed, assessing when these technologies could be rolled out, and quantifying their impact on local employment and procurement and how local content policies should adapt.

Tanzania Oil and Gas Capacity-Development Program

CCSI has partnered with the International Senior Lawyers Project (ISLP) and Tanzania’s UONGOZI Institute to develop a capacity-development program for Tanzania’s Oil & Gas Negotiation Team

New Petroleum Producers Discussion Group

CCSI is a knowledge partner to the New Petroleum Producers Discussion Group project, co-organized and sponsored by Chatham House, NRGI, the Africa Governance Initiative and the Commonwealth Secretariat. This project aims to help emerging oil and gas producers to think critically about the various policy options available during the first steps of exploration and development or when restructuring their… read more

Leveraging Mining-Related Infrastructure Investments for Development

With the support of the World Bank and the Australian Government, CCSI has been exploring regulatory, operational and commercial models to leverage mining-related infrastructure for broader development needs.

Managing the Public Trust: How to Make Natural Resource Funds Work for Citizens

The Natural Resource Governance Institute (NRGI) and the Columbia Center on Sustainable Investment (CCSI) have conducted a world-wide survey of NRFs looking at their management, investments, transparency, and accountability to the public, as well as the fiscal rules that govern them. This project seeks to foster cross-country experience-sharing on fund governance.

A Framework to Leverage Mining-related Infrastructure

Thanks to a grant from the Australian Government, CCSI has developed an economically, legally and operationally rational framework to enable shared use of mining-related infrastructure, including rail, ports, power, water, internet and telecommunications.

Columbia International Investment Conference

Since 2006, CCSI has hosted an annual Columbia International Investment Conference. These annual conferences bring together numerous stakeholders including high-level government officials, corporate executives, investors, academics, and civil society for forward-looking policy discussions of critical issues in international investment for sustainable development. A list of the past Conferences, with links to the programs and materials,… read more

Executive Training on Extractive Industries and Sustainable Development

This program is designed to equip participants with the necessary skills to promote the responsible development of the extractive industries sector in resource-rich developing countries and to encourage a rich dialogue about best practices from around the globe.

Fiscal Regimes for Natural Resources

CCSI is researching several aspects of designing and implementing a fiscal regime in an attempt to find legal and fiscal elements that can help avoid unanticipated consequences or disputes between the investor and the government over the course of the investment.

Support for Host Country Governments in the Planning, Preparation for, Negotiation, Implementation, and Monitoring of Large-Scale Investments

CCSI created a Negotiation Support Portal designed to improve the accessibility of technical assistance and of useful tools and resources to assist host governments planning, preparing for, negotiating, monitoring, and implementing large-scale investments in the extractive industries, land and agriculture, and infrastructure sectors, and to facilitate coordination among support providers and host governments.

Local Content Laws & Contractual Provisions

CCSI is examining local content provisions inserted in legal frameworks governing resource investments, including in contracts, legislation and bidding practices.

In-Country Trainings on Extractive Industries and Sustainable Development

CCSI regularly delivers adapted versions of the Executive Training Program on Extractive Industries and Sustainable Development in various host-countries around the world.

Checklist for Regulations to Facilitate the Imposition of Capital Gains Tax

Against the backdrop of highly profitable deals concluded between companies transferring project shares, CCSI has researched the challenges of imposing a Capital Gains Tax. The attached note outlines some scenarios by which direct and indirect transfers of project shares may take place, to serve as a broad checklist in designing regulations for a capital gains tax… read more

Extractive Industries Curriculum for Masters in Development Practice

The course covers the inter-related challenges of governance, infrastructure, economic diversification, environmental management, and economic development.

Business Case for Transparency

CCSI strongly supports the transparency of contracts and tax flows and has published various research and papers making the business case for transparency, including two submissions to the SEC in 2011 and 2015.

Paraguay: Leveraging Paraguay’s Hydropower for Sustainable Economic Development

This advisory project to the Government of Paraguay explored the potential of a climate risk management system and sustainable agriculture activities to mitigate environmental vulnerability, and developed a high-level strategic plan to use Paraguay’s vast hydropower resources for sustainable economic development and the diversification of its economy.

Ad-hoc events

CCSI regularly hosts speakers, roundtables, workshops, and events on a variety of related topics.

Policy Briefs, Guides and Other Publications

CCSI produces a number of policy briefs, guides and other publications that are useful resources on topics of extractive industries, land and agriculture, and investment law and policy.

Review Mechanisms in Natural Resource Contracts

CCSI has published a brief which examines the use of built-in review periods in extractive industry contracts as a mechanism for managing investor–host-country relations over the duration of a project. CCSI completed a survey of periodic review mechanisms contained in extractive industry contracts, to analyze how they have been used to date and understand the purposes for which they may usefully be applied.

Downstream Beneficiation of Extractive Resources

This research looks at the economic prerequisites that attract first degree downstream beneficiation industries, such as steel mills, and the extent to which these industries have contributed to further domestic linkages in the past, and assesses whether it makes sense to provide large incentives for these investments.

Fostering Knowledge and Technology Spillovers of Extractive Industry Investments

This research project assesses the channels through which knowledge and technology can be transferred and, based on successful country case studies, provides recommendations on how governments can enhance technological spillovers in oil, gas, and mining.

Timor-Leste: Support to the Strategic Development Plan

CCSI supported the drafting and adoption of the 20 year strategic development plan (SDP) for Timor-Leste, which was well-received by the development partners, and helped to develop new institutions and laws to optimize the use of the country’s petroleum fund for development.

Guinea, Tanzania, and Zambia : Integrated Community Development at Mine Sites

CCSI is collaborating with the Earth Institute and Millennium Development Goal (MDG) Centers in West and East Africa to adapt the broad precepts of the Millennium Villages Project to the specific conditions of mining sites.

Comparing Company Profits and Government Revenues from Extractives During the ‘Commodity Super Cycle’

This research project aims to assess whether it is reasonable for governments to demand a larger share of the pie by comparing company profits to government revenues during the boom years.

Contextualizing Stabilization Clauses

This research assesses whether political risk indicators are a good measure to predict fiscal regime changes, with the ultimate aim to create a framework which investors and governments can use to negotiate the length of future stabilization clauses.

Review of Competitive Bidding Frameworks for Natural Resource Rights

This study surveyed the trend toward countries integrating competitive bidding provisions for mineral rights allocation into their national legislation and regulations, and sought to analyze these issues.

Strategic Environmental Assessment

The aims of this research are to propose how and when strategic environmental assessments can be integrated into planning processes in the pre-contracting phase and to support governments at the ministerial level in their implementation, looking at tools and institutional framework enabling participatory and cross-ministerial processes.

Resource for Infrastructure Deals

Tags: Research

CCSI, in collaboration with the Carter Center, is developing two economic models for the Sicomines mine in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) to compare the financial flows under the resource for infrastructure deal with a ‘traditional’ contract under the mining code of the DRC.

Cross-Border Pipelines

This project examined the bargaining power of cross-border pipeline transit countries and the range of factors that influence it, including their position in the pipeline, their commercial interest in the project as well as their foreign policy strategy.