Reports and Policy Papers

Equipping the Nigerian National Petroleum Corporation for the Low-Carbon Transition How Are Other National Oil Companies Adapting?

The Nigerian National Petroleum Corporation’s (NNPC) persistent governance challenges have both hampered Nigeria’s oil sector development and deprived the country of public resources. The oil, climate, and COVID-19 crises and the ramp-up of the low-carbon transition exacerbate this reality, with the national oil company (NOC) delivering sub-optimal returns to its stakeholders. Other NOCs have taken… read more

Best Practices in Data Driven Development Planning in Mining Regions

Strategic development planning has long been used by private and public sectors to guide actions that will lead to a determined goal in the medium- to long-term. The SDG framework has helped to create a common language of what development means, what the global objectives are by 2030, and how progress can be measured. With… read more

Don’t Throw Caution to the Wind: In the Green Energy Transition, Not All Critical Minerals Will Be Goldmines

The green energy transition will be exceedingly mineral intensive and rosy forecasts for projected mineral demand are suggesting promising opportunities for developing countries. This paper highlights uncertain terrain upon which these bullish forecasts rest. Governments, international actors and mining advocates seeking to optimize the value of green energy mineral reserves should heed caution when pursuing and promoting the mining of critical minerals. This paper offers specific recommendations.

A Review of Sierra Leone’s Mines and Minerals Act

With the support of Oxfam, the Columbia Center on Sustainable Investment reviewed select provisions in the Mines and Minerals Act 2009 and corresponding policy statements from the Minerals Policy 2018 to provide recommendations for how to best align the anticipated new mining law with international best practice. The 2009 law was reviewed with a focus on the… read more

Concrete Measures for a Framework on Investment Facilitation for Development: Report

Based on a number of background papers and discussions during an Expert Workshop, this report identifies 12 concrete measures that could be included in the Framework on Investment Facilitation for Development being negotiated in the WTO.

Ensuring Economic Viability and Sustainability of Coffee Production

Coffee, the world’s favorite beverage, provides livelihoods for at least 60 million people across dozens of countries. Yet this beloved drink is experiencing a sustainability crisis.

Preparing Legal Frameworks for Environmental Disasters: Practical Considerations for Host States

This report sets forth specific steps that host-governments can take during the pre-investment, operation, and enforcement phases of extractives projects to provide financial and other protection in the context of environmental disasters associated with private sector investments.

Environmental Injustice: How Treaties Undermine Human Rights Related to the Environment

Policymakers and environmental advocates have often overlooked how provisions granted by states in international investment agreements (IIAs) have been used by investors to challenge government measures taken in the public interest to protect the environment and advance environmental justice.

Aligning Investment Treaties with Sustainable Development

Policy makers and other stakeholders are currently asking fundamental questions about whether and to what extent international investment agreements (IIAs) are consistent with and are helping to advance sustainable development objectives at home and abroad. A 2019 paper from CCSI examines the alignment of IIAs with the 2030 Sustainable Development Agenda, arguing that while FDI will play an… read more

Advancing Sustainable Development by Facilitating Sustainable FDI, Promoting CSR, Designating Recognized Sustainable Investors, and Giving Home Countries a Role

By Karl P. Sauvant, Resident Senior Fellow, Columbia Center on Sustainable Investment, and Evan Gabor, J.D. candidate, Columbia Law School. Foreign direct investment (“FDI”) can be an important vehicle for development. However, in recent years, the focus has not just been on development generally, but sustainable development specifically. Thus, this paper focuses on how countries… read more